KAMWE (HIGGI) ORIGIN(S), MIGRATION(S) AND SETTLEMENT

Michael Boni Bazza, Ikechukwu Anthony Kanu

Abstract


The concept of ‘genesis’ or ‘origin’ in history has given rise to several schools of
thought each seeking to provide a framework through which the origin of people
could be meaningfully examined. These include the Diffusionist, Anti-Diffusionist,
Procreationist, and Evolutionist schools of thought. This paper therefore, examines
each of these schools with a view to situating Kamwe (Higgi) origin(s) migration(s)
and settlement patterns in their proper historical perspectives. An analysis of the
aforementioned schools of thought reveal that the Kamwe (Higgi) people fit more
adequately within the framework of the Evolutionist school of thought which
maintains that socio-cultural affinities emerging from shared historical experience
over time, constitute the bedrock for understanding the origins of people. Oral
traditions and opinions of elders from the field of research convey the fact that the
people who today answer to the designation ‘Kamwe or Higgi’ were in the earliest
times, a collection of small socio-cultural units of the Sukur, the Marghi and Fali;
essentially, they inhabit modern day Michika, Madagali and Mubi North Local
Government Areas and indeed, the Mandara Mountains’ range lying immediately
aside the Nigeria-Cameroun border. However, over time, these socio-cultural units
coalesced by sheer forces of history such as wars, inter-marriage, trade and commerce
and subsequently developed a number of shared cultural characteristics which today
distinguish them as member of a common nation. To elucidate this position, the
paper further, examines the views of Kamwe (Higgi) elders in order to recapture
briefly, how they in turn see their past as they relate to their own myths of origin(s)
migration(s) and settlement which is the subject-matter of this research paper.

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References


Interview with Baba Maduwa Bode, 103 years, Michika 2, 07/04/18

J. P. Dada, Z. M. Mangoro and J. J. Williams, The Kamwe (Higi)

People of Adamawa State, Kaduna: Apani Publications, 2005, p.1.

Ibid., p.9.

Interview with Baba Maduwa Bode, 103 years, Michika 2, 07/04/18

B. V. Z. Debki, The History and Culture of Kamwe People, Jos: Grace

Publications, 2009, p. 4.

B. V. Z. Debki, The History and Culture of Kamwe People…, p. 15.

S. O. Onor, The Ejagham Nation In The Cross River Region of Nigeria,

Ibadan: Kraft Books, 1994, p. 35.

S. O. Onor, The Ejagham Nation In The Cross River Region…, p. 36.

Ibid.

Ibid.

Ibid.

Ibid.

S. O. Onor, The Ejagham Nation In The Cross River Region…, p. 37.

A. Obayemi, “The Yoruba and Edo speaking Peoples and their

neighbours before 1600 ”, J. F. A. Ajayi and M. Crowder (eds.),

History of West Africa, Vol. 1, London: Longman Publishers Ltd.,

, P. 258.

Ibid.

Ibid.

J. H. Greenberg, The Languages of Africa, Bloomington: Indiana

University, 1970

Ibid.

Ibid.

S. O. Onor, The Ejagham Nation In The Cross River Region…, p. 37.

This school of thought is derived from the views expressed by early

British anthropologists who visited Africa in the early days of the

colonial era. They conceived of most African nationalities as

products of a common putative ancestor, lacking in the ability to

interact with their neighbours, far and near.

S. O. Onor, The Ejagham Nation In The Cross River Region…, p. 38.

S. Johnson, The History of the Yorubas,Lagos: CMS, 1921, pp. 2-24.

C. C. Ifemesia,“States of the Central Sudan”, J. F. A. Ajayi and I.

Espie (eds.), A Thousand years of West African History, Ibadan: IUP,

, pp. 90-92

S. O. Onor, The Ejagham Nation In The Cross River Region…, p. 38.

Kamwe (Higgi) Origin(s), Migration(s) and Settlement

Ibid.

Foremost Nigerian scholars who articulate this position include

Alagoa and Erim

I. Y. Kwache, Kamwe People of Northern Nigeria: Origin, History and

Culture

(Vol.1). Kaduna: Prudent Universal Press Company, Ltd, 2016, p.1.

I. Y. Kwache, Kamwe People of Northern Nigeria: Origin, History…,p. 2.

Ibid.

Ibid.

Ibid.

Ibid.

I. Y. Kwache, Kamwe People of Northern Nigeria: Origin, History…,p. 3.

Ibid.

B. V. Z. Debki, The History and Culture of Kamwe People…, p. 4.

Genesis Chapter 11:1-9.

Ibid.

This observation also derived from field experience.

S. O. Onor, The Ejagham Nation In The Cross River Region…, p. 19.

Ibid.

Interview with Catechist Tsandukwa, 65 years, O. L. C. Bazza,

/04/18.

Ibid.

Ibid.

Ibid.

This was a consensus opinion among Kamwe the elders.

Ibid.

I. Y. Kwache, Kamwe People of Northern Nigeria: Origin, History…,p. 3.

Ibid.

Mai Idris Alooma of Bornu, 1571-1583, p. 68.

I. Y. Kwache, Kamwe People of Northern Nigeria: Origin, History…,p.

I. Y. Kwache, Kamwe People of Northern Nigeria: Origin, History…,p.

Ibid.

Ibid.

I. Y. Kwache, Kamwe People of Northern Nigeria: Origin, History…,p.

Ibid.

Ibid.

Recollection from the teachings of my grandmother, Shi Wantwe’li.

BAZZA, Michael Boni & KANU Ikechukwu Anthony 101

B. V. Z. Debki, The History and Culture of Kamwe People…, p. 7.

Interview with Baba Maduwa Bode, 103 years, Michika 2, 07/04/18

Ibid.

B. V. Z. Debki, The History and Culture of Kamwe People…, p. 5.

Ibid.

Ibid.

I. Y. Kwache, Kamwe People of Northern Nigeria: Origin, History…,p.

B. V. Z. Debki, The History and Culture of Kamwe People…, p. 7.

I had the unique privilege of visiting the Sukur heritage site at

Madagali in Adamawa north in April, 2018 during my field work in

Kamweland.

S. Ziradzo, The Sociology of the Higgi People, Jos: Matchers Publishing

Ltd., 2009, p. 12.

Ibid.

Ibid.

S. Ziradzo, The Sociology of the Higgi People…, p. 13.

I. Y. Kwache, Kamwe People of Northern Nigeria: Origin, History…,p. 4.

Ibid.

I. Y. Kwache, Kamwe People of Northern Nigeria: Origin, History…,p. 5.

Sunday Daily Trust Newspapers, 7th July, 2013.

Y. Kwache, Kamwe People of Northern Nigeria: Origin, History…,p. 11


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